Dialogues of Krishna and Arjuna
The Eighteen Lectures
TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL
IN THE ANCIENT LANGUAGE OF THE BRAHMAN
By CHARLES WILKINS 1785
L E C T U R E. I0.
OF THE DIVERSITY OF THE DIVINE NATURE.
(God is the Source of All; to know Him is to Know All.)
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OF THE DIVERSITY OF THE DIVINE NATURE.
Hear again, O valiant. youth, my supreme words, which I will speak unto thee, who art well pleased, because I am anxious for thy welfare.
Neither the hosts of Suras 47 nor the Mahaṛṣis, know of my birth, because I am before all the Devatas and Mahaṛṣis. Whoso, free from folly, knoweth me to be without birth, before all things and the mighty ruler of the universe, he shall, amongst mortals, be saved with all his transgressions. The various qualities incident to natural beings, such as reason, knowledge unembarrassed judgment, patience, truth, humility, meekness, pleasure and pain ; birth and death, fear and courage ; mercy, equality, gladness, charity, zeal, renown and infamy, all distinctly come from me. So in former days . the seven Mahaṛṣis and the four Manus•49 who are of my nature, were born of my mind of whom are
descended all the inhabitants of the earth. He who knoweth this my distinction and my connexion, according to their principles, is without doubt endued with an unerring devotion. I am the creator of all things, and all things proceed from me. Those who are endued with spiritual wisdom, believe this and worship me: their very hearts and minds are in me; they rejoice amongst themselves, and delight in speaking of my name, and teaching one another my doctrine. I gladly inspire those, who are constantly employed in my service, with that use of reason, by which they come unto me; and, in compassion, I stand in my own nature, and dissipate the darkness of their, ignorance with the light of the lamp of wisdom.
All the Rajaṛṣis50 and Devaṛṣis51, and the prophet Nārada53, call thee the supreme Brahman; the supreme abode; the most holy; the highest God; the eternal Puruṣa, the divine being before all other Gods, without birth, the mighty Lord! Thus say Asita, Devata, Vyāsa, and thou thyself hast told me so ; and I firmly believe, O Kesava, all thou tellest me. Neither the Devās nor the Danavās53 are acquainted, O Lord, with thy appearance. Thou alone, O first of men54 ! knowest thy own spirit; thou, who art the production of all nature, the ruler of
all things, the God of Gods, and the universal Lord. Thou art now able to make me acquainted with those divine portions of thyself, by which thou possessest and dwellest in this world. How shall I, although I constantly think of thee, be able to know thee? In what particular natures art thou to be found? Tell me again in full what is thy connection, and what thy distinction; for I am not yet satisfied with drinking of the living water of thy words.
Blessings be upon thee I I will make thee acquainted with the chief of my divine distinctions, as the extent of my nature is infinite.
I am the soul which standeth in the bodies of all beings. I am the beginning; the middle, and the end of all things. Amongst the ādityās, I am Viṣṇu56, and the radiant Ravi57 amongst the stars ; I am Marici amongst the Maruts59, and śaśī60 (Moon) amongst the Nakṣatras (Stars), amongst the Vedas, I am the Sāma63, and I am vāsavaḥ63 amongst the Dévas, Amongst the faculties I am the mind, and amongst animals I am reason. I am Śaṁkara64 amongst the Rudrās65, and Vitteśa (Kubera)66 amongst the Yakṣas and Rakṣasās. I am Pāvaka (Fire)67 amongst the Vasus68 and Meru69 amongst the aspiring mountains.
BG 10.23. udrāṇām1 = Of the Rudras; asmi4 = I am; śaṁkaraḥ2 = Siva; ca3 = and; yakṣa-rakṣasām6 = of the Yaksas and Raksasas; vitteśaḥ5 = kubera, the Lord of Treasury; vasūnām7 = of the Vasus; asmi10 = I am; pāvakaḥ8 = Fire; ca9 = and; śikhariṇām12 = of the mountain peaks;aham13 = I [am]; meruḥ11 = Meru. 10.23
Amongst teachers know that I am their chief Brhaspati70 ; amongst warriors I am Skanda; and amongst floods I am the ocean. I am Bhrgu7S amongst the Maharisahis, and I am the monosyllable amongst words. I am amongst worships the Tip 74 or silent worship, and amongst immovables the mountain Himālaya. Of all the trees of the forest I am the Aśvattha and of all the Devarṣīs, I am Nārada. I am Chitraratha amongst Gandharvas77 and the Kapila Muni amongst the saints. Know that amongst horses I am Uccaiḥśrava, who arose with the Amrtam from out the ocean Among elephants I am Airāvata, and the sovereign amongst men. Amongst weapons I am the Vajra or thunderbolt, and amongst cattle the cow Kāmadhuk79. | am the prolific Kandarpa the God of love ; and amongst serpents I am Vāsuki their chief. I am Ananta amongst the Nāgās, and Varuṇa amongst the inhabitants of the waters. I am Aryamā amongst the subduers, and I am Yama amongst all those who rule. Amongst the Daityas (evil spirits) I am Prahalāda83 , and Kāla (time) amongst computations. Arnongst beasts I am the king of beasts, and Garuda 84 amongst the feathered tribe, Amongst purifiers I am Pavana the air, Rama amongst those who carry arms. Amongst fish I am the Makara and
amongst rivers I am Ganga the daughter of Jahnu, Of things transient I am the beginning, the middle, and the end. Of all science I am the knowledge of the ruling spirit, and of all speaking I am the oration. Amongst letters I am the vowel a, and of all compound words I am the Dwandva I am also never-failing time ; the preserver, whose face is turned on all sides. I am all-grasping death; and I am the resurrection of those who are about to be. Amongst feminines I am fame, fortune, eloquence, memory, understanding, fortitude, patience. Amongst harmonious measures I am the Gāyatrī, and among Sāma Veda, I am the Brhatsama. Amongst the months I am the month margasirasa 8s, and amongst seasons the season Kusumākara (flower-bearer)89. Amongst frauds I am gaming; and of all things glorious I am the glory. I am victory, I am industry, and I am the essence of all qualities. Of the race of Vṛṣṇīs am the son of Vasudeva90, and amongst the Pāndūs Arjun-Dhananjaya. I am Vyāsa amongst the Munis, and amongst the Bards I am the prophet Uśanā 93. Amongst rulers I am the rod, and amongst those who seek for conquest I am policy. Amongst the secrets I am silence, and amongst the wife I am wisdom. I am, in like manner, O Arjuna that which is the seed of all things in nature; and there is
is not anything, whether animate or inanimate, that is without me. My divine distinctions are without end, and the many which I have mentioned are by way of example. And learn, O Arjuna, that every being which is worthy of distinction and preeminence, is the produce of the portion of my glory. But what, O Arjuna, hast thou to do with this manifold wisdom ? I planted this whole universe with a single portion and stood still.