04KuralDharma
Madurai Project
Translation by V.R. Ramachandra Dikshitar, M.A.,
Professor of Indian History and Archaeology, University of Madras
Madurai Project
Translation of Kural by V.R. Ramachandra Dikshitar, M.A.,
Professor of Indian History and Archaeology, University of Madras
Madurai Project
Translation by V.R. Ramachandra Dikshitar, M.A.,
Professor of Indian History and Archaeology, University of Madras
Madurai Project
Translation of Kural by V.R. Ramachandra Dikshitar, M.A.,
Professor of Indian History and Archaeology, University of Madras
31. சிறப்பு ஈனும் செல்வமும் ஈனும் அறத்தினூஉங்கு
ஆக்கம் எவனோ உயிர்க்கு.
31. Is there anything higher in life than Dharma? It secures glory and wealth.

Virtue confers greatness and recognition. Riches may not come as fast. The virtuous acts do not go to waste. Though recognition and fame precede acquisition of wealth, the latter comes to the virtuous eventually. KR

Virtue, the embodiment of moral excellence, bestows upon its followers not only greatness but also recognition. It serves as a testament to one's character and integrity, garnering admiration from others who witness virtuous acts. While the acquisition of material wealth may not be instantaneous for the virtuous, their virtuous deeds never go to waste.
Often, it is the virtuous acts themselves that pave the way for recognition and fame. The noble actions and values displayed by virtuous individuals capture the attention of those around them, drawing admiration and respect. Their reputation precedes them, becoming a herald of their virtues.
However, it is important to note that the accumulation of riches may not be an immediate consequence of virtue. Wealth may not flow as swiftly as recognition and fame. Yet, the virtuous remain steadfast in their commitment to ethical conduct and the pursuit of noble ideals.
32. அறத்தினூஉங்கு ஆக்கமும் இல்லை அதனை
மறத்தலின் ஊங்கில்லை கேடு.
32. Nothing is higher than Dharma; to forget it is wrought with greatest evil.

Dharma, the pinnacle of virtue, reigns supreme, surpassing all. Forgetting its essence leads to grave consequences, embodying the epitome of evil.
33. ஒல்லும் வகையான் அறவினை ஓவாதே
செல்லும்வாய் எல்லாஞ் செயல்.
33. Avail yourself of all opportunities. Do not cease from practicing Dharma on all possible occasions to the best of your ability.
Seize every opportunity and embrace them fully. Unceasingly practice Dharma, the highest virtue, with utmost dedication and skill, in every possible circumstance.
34. மனத்துக்கண் மாசிலன் ஆதல் அனைத்து அறன்
ஆகுல நீர பிற.
34. Be pure in mind. That is Dharma. All else is but a pompous show.
The essence of Dharma lies in the purity of one's mind, transcending external displays. Genuine Dharma is free from ulterior motives, even in minor acts, as it embodies true virtue. Conversely, a grand philanthropic act driven by selfish intentions becomes nothing more than an ostentatious display, devoid of true righteousness.
35. அழுக்காறு அவாவெகுளி இன்னாச்சொல் நான்கும்
இழுக்கா இயன்றது அறம்.
35. That course of conduct that steers clear of every desire, wrath, and offensive speech is alone Dharma.
Envy, selfishness, anger, and harsh words are the hideous foursome, acts dissociated from which always become good deeds.
Envy, selfishness, anger, and harsh words form a repugnant foursome, leading to detrimental actions. Acts detached from these vices, on the other hand, invariably become virtuous deeds, carrying the essence of goodness.
36. அன்றறிவாம் என்னாது அறஞ்செய்க மற்றது
பொன்றுங்கால் பொன்றாத் துணை.
36. Do not postpone doing Dharma. Do it now. For it will be a never-failing friend at your death.

Instead of putting off for a later day, do Dharmic acts now. Doing thus, the undying virtuous deeds will help you even after your death. (The afterlife benefits are liberation of the soul forever, or transmigration of the soul to a prosperous embodied next life on earth.)
Rather than postponing Dharmic acts, engage in them without delay. By doing so, the enduring effects of virtuous deeds will continue to aid you even after death. These benefits extend to the liberation of the soul, ensuring eternal freedom, or the transmigration of the soul to a prosperous embodied existence in the next life on Earth. This emphasizes the importance of immediate action in cultivating righteousness and reaping its rewards, not only in the present but also in the realms beyond.
37. அறத்தாறு இதுவென வேண்டா சிவிகை
பொறுத்தானோடு ஊர்ந்தான் இடை.
37. Why search for the fruits of Dharma? Behold the one in the palanquin and the palanquin-bearer.
37. Look at the difference between the palanquin bearer and the palanquin rider. Knowing thus, no one needs to tell us the effects of the long arm of karma.
This poignant poem illuminates the stark distinction between the palanquin bearer and the rider, symbolizing the profound effects of karma. It reminds us that our actions shape our destiny, with each choice carrying far-reaching consequences. By understanding this fundamental truth, we realize the significance of our deeds and the responsibility we hold in crafting our own paths in life.
38. வீழ்நாள் படாஅமை நன்றாற்றின் அஃதொருவன்
வாழ்நாள் வழியடைக்கும் கல்.
38. If one were to practice righteousness every day it would be the stone that blocks the way to re-birth.
If we do the virtuous acts before the arrival of the day of death, they are the blocking stone, preventing the rebirth and life (on earth).
The verse speaks to the transformative power of virtuous acts before the finality of death. By engaging in righteousness prior to life's end, these acts become formidable barriers, hindering the cycle of rebirth and the subsequent earthly existence. It emphasizes the significance of seizing the opportunity to cultivate goodness, ensuring liberation from the perpetual cycle of life and death.
39. அறத்தான் வருவதே இன்பம் மற் றெல்லாம்
புறத்த புகழும் இல.
39. Happiness springs only from Dharma. All else is sorrow and merits no praise.

This profound statement underscores the inherent connection between happiness and Dharmic deeds. True happiness emerges as a result of living in alignment with virtuous principles. Pursuits outside the realm of Dharma may bring fleeting recognition but fail to yield genuine happiness. It highlights the lasting significance of virtuous actions in fostering true fulfillment and the pursuit of a meaningful life.
40. செயற்பால தோரும் அறனே ஒருவற்கு
உயற்பால தோரும் பழி.
40. To do good and to avoid evil must be the law of our being.

Dharma is the only option left after analysis. The ones for removal or avoidance are evil deeds.

Dharma is the only option left following analysis. The deeds for removal or avoidance are evil ones.
Through careful analysis, it becomes evident that Dharma is the sole viable choice. The actions to be eliminated or avoided are those rooted in evil. This concise observation highlights the transformative power of choosing righteousness and discarding malevolence, emphasizing the importance of aligning our actions with virtuous principles for personal growth and a harmonious existence.